Euscorpius flavicaudis male
Species: Euscorpius flavicaudis
Common name: European yellow tailed
Distribution: West of Europe (Italy,
France, Spain), North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia). Introduced in Great
Britain (South South-East of England) and South America (Uruguay)
Habitat: Temperate zones in
Venom: Not considered
medical important. It is Harmless for healthy humans
is one of the largest members of the genus, it can usually
reach lengths of
3.3/4.5 cm (1.3/1.7 inch), but it may sometimes be bigger.
This species is a
small scorpion, with a blackish/black-brownish body and
with a yellow/yellowish-beige telson and legs. The chela manus can be
brown/reddish. The Patella of pedipalp has an internal tubercle.
It is a typical
harmless scorpion with large and strong pedipalps, a stout body and a
thin "tail" (metasoma).
This scorpion is
found mostly in tyrrhenian regions, in humid areas as forests,
fields, woodshed, under stones and can also be found in old houses, in
cracks and crevices in walls and ruins etc.
How to differentiate
the E. flavicaudis
from others Euscorpius
To start getting
a valid ID of these scorpions, you look at the telson and leg colour.
If the telson and legs are darkish/brownish, it is likely to be E. Italicus or E. concinnus. If
they are bright or
yellowish, then you look at body's colour. If it is reddish/brown , it
is likely to be "E.
tergestinus, E. sicanus etc.). If it is
blackish/brown dark with yellowish/beige legs and telson, it is likely Euscorpius flavicaudis.
But the most
accurate method to determine the species is looking at the
trichobothria ventrally on the chela manus and/or the trichobothria
ventrally on the patella:
usually has 5 trichobothria on the ventral surface of
just before the movable fingers, and it usually has 10-13 trichobotria
on the ventral surface of the patella.
Euscorpius italicus has at least 7
trichobothria on the ventral surface of
the chela, before the movable
belonging to the subgenera Euscorpius
and Alpiscorpius or related to them, have 4
ventral surface of the chela, just before the
Euscorpius flavicaudis has 5 trichobothria ventrally on
ventral surface of the chela
Euscorpius flavicaudis female
Euscorpius italicus female
Euscorpius aquilejensis female
the sex the following factors can be taken into consideration:
line of the
body; the male is more slender than female.
The size of
pedipalpi; the male has larger claws and strong and aven have most
pronounced notch on the fixed finger of the chela manus.
The size of the
telson; it's larger in males.
The length of the pectines; the male has longer pectines with a larger
number of teeth than the female. The male has from 9 to 11 teeth that
overstep the first strnite, whilst the female has 7-9.
short pectines with 8/8
teeth is a female
longer pectines with
10/10 teeth is a male
should be 10/14 months, according to the quantity of food available and
The mother will
look a hidden and humid place to give birth directly small well formed
scorpions, usually about thirty scorplings white, soft and
The mother will
be placed raised forelegs, to facilitate the release of children, then
they will climb on the back of their mother, where they will remain
until the first molt (approximately six days).
After that, the
scorplings will start to wander in the surrounding areas but remaining
around the burrow all together for a few days. The scorplings should be
separeted to avoid cannibalism.
The young scorpions will reach the adulthood after about two years from
birth. In this time we can see the scorpions become "swollen" up to
they stop of eat. They will hide themselves for a lot of time, probably
the next time you will see them, they will be more larger.
The moment of molt (ecdysis) and of the post-molt are the most delicate
and dangerous, because they are helpless, unable to defend themselves
and the exoskeleton isn't still hard.
time of childbirth
after first molt
Keeping in captivity
The Euscorpius flavicaudis are solitary, they
aren't communal scorpions.
The only contact
with others Euscorpius
from attacking them) they are for the opposite sex only for the time
required for mating. I have seen acts of cannibalism.
As all the species of Euscorpius, this is an easy
scorpion to keep, it is suitable for a beginner, but it is not easy to
breed the newborn scorpions.
should be15x20 cm (6x8 inch) for one scorpion, 25x25 cm (10x10 inch)
for two scorpions. Give them a layer of peat at least about 5 cm (2
I kept these
scorpions at temperatures around 30°C (86°F) at daytime
and around 22°C (68°F) at night in the summer and
around 15/13°C (59/55.5°F) in winter, but in nature
they live at higher and lower temperatures, even below 0°C
should be around 70/85%. Provide high ventilation to prevent mildews.
scorpions, the Euscorpius
crickets, mealworms, cockroaches and also Oniscidea and others
Give them food
once per week and remove the prey if they not eaten after 2/3 days. To
remove left-overs, forbear attract mites.
The Euscorpius scorpions are timide and
feel easily annoyed, especially when they eat, and they could leave the
do use their sting enough to capture prey, specially if the prey is
scorpion genus is underestimated because it is small.
But I think it is
very charming, though it is a small scorpion, it can give the
same emotions of large scorpions.
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