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Euscorpius flavicaudis
(DeGeer, 1778)
 

Euscorpius flavicaudis male


Family: Euscorpiidae
Subgenus: Tetratrichobothrius
Species: Euscorpius flavicaudis
Common name: European yellow tailed scorpion
Distribution: West of Europe (Italy, France, Spain), North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia). Introduced in Great Britain (South South-East of England) and South America (Uruguay)
Habitat: Temperate zones in humid areas
Venom: Not considered medical important. It is Harmless for healthy humans


General

Euscorpius flavicaudis is one of the largest members of the genus, it can usually reach lengths of 3.3/4.5 cm (1.3/1.7 inch), but it may sometimes be bigger.
This species is a small scorpion, with a blackish/black-brownish body and with a yellow/yellowish-beige telson and legs. The chela manus can be brown/reddish. The Patella of pedipalp has an internal tubercle.
It is a typical harmless scorpion with large and strong pedipalps, a stout body and a thin "tail" (metasoma).
This scorpion is found mostly in tyrrhenian regions, in humid areas as forests, fields, woodshed, under stones and can also be found in old houses, in cracks and crevices in walls and ruins etc.



How to differentiate the E. flavicaudis from others Euscorpius spp

To start getting a valid ID of these scorpions, you look at the telson and leg colour. If the telson and legs are darkish/brownish, it is likely to be E. Italicus or E. concinnus. If they are bright or yellowish, then you look at body's colour. If it is reddish/brown , it is likely to be "E. carpathicus complex" (E. tergestinus, E. sicanus etc.). If it is blackish/brown dark with yellowish/beige legs and telson, it is likely Euscorpius flavicaudis.
But the most accurate method to determine the species is looking at the trichobothria ventrally on the chela manus and/or the trichobothria ventrally on the patella:
Euscorpius flavicaudis usually has 5 trichobothria on the ventral surface of the chela, just before the movable fingers, and it usually has 10-13 trichobotria on the ventral surface of the patella.
Euscorpius italicus has at least 7 trichobothria on the ventral surface of the chela, before the movable fingers.
The species belonging to the subgenera Euscorpius and Alpiscorpius or related to them, have 4 trichobothria on the ventral surface of the chela, just before the movable fingers.




Euscorpius flavicaudis has 5 trichobothria ventrally on the ventral surface of the chela



Euscorpius flavicaudis female



Euscorpius italicus female



Euscorpius aquilejensis female



Sexing

To distinguish the sex the following factors can be taken into consideration:
The line of the body; the male is more slender than female.
The size of pedipalpi; the male has larger claws and strong and aven have most pronounced notch on the fixed finger of the chela manus.
The size of the telson; it's larger in males.
The length of the pectines; the male has longer pectines with a larger number of teeth than the female. The male has from 9 to 11 teeth that overstep the first strnite, whilst the female has  7-9.



short pectines with 8/8 teeth is a female


longer pectines with 10/10 teeth is a male




Childbirth


Gestation period should be 10/14 months, according to the quantity of food available and the climate.
The mother will look a hidden and humid place to give birth directly small well formed scorpions, usually about thirty scorplings white, soft and swollen.
The mother will be placed raised forelegs, to facilitate the release of children, then they will climb on the back of their mother, where they will remain until the first molt (approximately six days).
After that, the scorplings will start to wander in the surrounding areas but remaining around the burrow all together for a few days. The scorplings should be separeted to avoid cannibalism.
The young scorpions will reach the adulthood after about two years from birth. In this time we can see the scorpions become "swollen" up to they stop of eat. They will hide themselves for a lot of time, probably the next time you will see them, they will be more larger.
The moment of molt (ecdysis) and of the post-molt are the most delicate and dangerous, because they are helpless, unable to defend themselves and the exoskeleton isn't still hard.




female gravid



time of childbirth



cannibalism



after first molt



second molt



third molt



subadult



Keeping in captivity

The Euscorpius flavicaudis are solitary, they aren't communal scorpions.
The only contact with others Euscorpius flavicaudis (besides from attacking them) they are for the opposite sex only for the time required for mating. I have seen acts of cannibalism.
As all the species of Euscorpius, this is an easy scorpion to keep, it is suitable for a beginner, but it is not easy to breed the newborn scorpions.
The container should be15x20 cm (6x8 inch) for one scorpion, 25x25 cm (10x10 inch) for two scorpions. Give them a layer of peat at least about 5 cm (2 inch).
I kept these scorpions at temperatures around 30°C (86°F) at daytime and around 22°C (68°F) at night in the summer and around 15/13°C (59/55.5°F) in winter, but in nature they live at higher and lower temperatures, even below 0°C (32°F).
The humidity should be around 70/85%. Provide high ventilation to prevent mildews.
Like all scorpions, the Euscorpius flavicaudis accept crickets, mealworms, cockroaches and also Oniscidea and others Aracnidae etc.
Give them food once per week and remove the prey if they not eaten after 2/3 days. To remove left-overs, forbear attract mites.
The Euscorpius scorpions are timide and feel easily annoyed, especially when they eat, and they could leave the prey .
These scorpions do use their sting enough to capture prey, specially if the prey is strong.




Often this scorpion genus is underestimated because it is small.
But I think it is very charming, though it is a small scorpion, it can give the same emotions of large scorpions.



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